The Plasma NAD+ Metabolome is Dysregulated in 'Normal' Aging
Clement J, et al. The Plasma NAD+ Metabolome is Dysregulated in 'Normal' Aging. Rejuvenation Res. 2019 Apr;22(2):121-1
Link to Original Publication: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6482912/
NAD+ and NADP+ (includes the addition of a phosphate) are the main electron transfer molecules and the underlying substances for over 700 oxidoreductase enzymes. NAD+ is the precursor of the pyridine nucleotide family, including NADH (the reduced form of NAD+) which provides electrons to power mitochondrial ATP production for energy.
Based on previous research, a disturbed redox balance (from exposure to chronic oxidative stress) is often an important component of the cell damage in cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Because of the potential association with cognitive decline, aging, and age-related conditions, accurate measures of NAD+ and related molecules within the cell is of major interest.
This study measured levels of NAD+, NADP+, NADH, and other important metabolites in healthy adults ranging in age from 20 to 87 years. NAD+ showed a steep rate of decline, with significant decreases observed after age 40 and continued declines after age 60. The ratio of NAD+ to NADH also decreased with age, and may impair energy production and cell health. Given the important role NAD+ in energy metabolism, immune function, DNA repair, and telomere maintenance, identifying strategies to maintain NAD+ levels may be an important target for managing age-related cellular declines.